February 2024

Box The Pox: Reducing the Risk of Smallpox and Other Orthopoxviruses

Table of Contents



Joseph I. Lieberman, Chair
Thomas J. Ridge, Chair
Donna E. Shalala
Thomas A. Daschle
Frederick S. Upton
Susan W. Brooks
James C. Greenwood
Margaret A. Hamburg

Ex Officio Members

Yonah Alexander, PhD
William B. Karesh, DVM
Rachel Levinson, MA
Lewis Libby, JD
Rajesh R. Panjabi, MD
Gerald W. Parker, DVM, PhD
George Poste, DVM, PhD, DSc
Tevi Troy, PhD


Asha M. George, DrPH, Executive Director
John T. O’Brien, MS, Research Principal
Ambika Bumb, PhD, Deputy Executive Director
Robert H. Bradley, Policy Principal
Patricia de la Sota, Operations Manager


The Commission acknowledges the efforts of Dr. D.A. Henderson in his quest to eradicate the world of smallpox, as well as those of Dr. Jobst Bose, Dr. Lawrence Brilliant, Dr. Davida Coady, Dr. Cornelia Davis, Dr. Nicole Grasset, Dr. Mary Guinan, Dr. Edward Jenner, Benjamin Jesty, Dr. J. Michael Lane, Dr. Louis Odier, and Dr. Theodore Tronchin. We appreciate contributions to this report from academia, industry, and nongovernmental organizations in the United States and around the world. We thank Dr. Laura Efros, Paul Williams, and Dr. Jay Varma for sharing their experience and perspectives with the Commission. We thank our ex officio members for their advice and input. The Commission also expresses its gratitude for the financial support provided by our donors and to Hudson Institute for serving as its fiscal sponsor.

Copyright © 2024 by the Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense
All rights reserved.

Graphics and design by Factor3 Digital.
Base cover image courtesy of

Suggested Citation
Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense. (2024). Box the Pox: Reducing the
Risk of Smallpox and Other Orthopoxviruses. Bipartisan Commission on
Biodefense: Washington, DC.